Calow Berry Farms, LLC
Grower of the Aronia Berry

Technical Stuff   

Anthocyanin: A member of a family of pigments (carotenoids and chlorophyll are the other members) that is responsible for the coloration of flowers and fruits. Anthocyanins create the blue, red and purple hues in plants such as apples, berries, eggplant, radishes, red cabbage, red grapes, and purple corn.

Antioxidant: Antioxidants scavenge free radicals, convert them to harmless substances, absorb them or attach to them before the free radicals can attack normal tissues, destroy cellular proteins or enzymes, or even cause DNA mutations leading to cancer.

ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. This is a testing method developed by the USDA to measure the ability of a substance to absorb free radicals.

Free Radicals: Typically, stable molecules contain pairs of electrons. When a chemical reaction breaks the bonds that hold paired electrons together, free radicals are produced. Free radicals contain an odd number of electrons, which makes them unstable, short-lived, and highly reactive. As they combine with other atoms that contain unpaired electrons, new radicals are created, and a chain reaction begins. In the human body, oxidized free radicals are believed to cause tissue damage at the cellular level -- harming our DNA, mitochondria, and cell membrane.  Some free radicals arise normally during metabolism. Sometimes the body's immune systems cells purposefully create them to neutralize viruses and bacteria. However, environmental factors such as pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke and herbicides can also spawn free radicals. Normally, the body can handle free radicals, but if antioxidants are unavailable, or if the free-radical production becomes excessive, damage can occur. Of particular importance is that free radical damage accumulates with age.

Polyphenols: A chemical that may protect against some common health problems and possibly certain effects of aging. Polyphenols act as antioxidants. They protect cells and body chemicals against damage caused by free radicals.

Phytonutrients or Phytochemicals: Currently, the terms "phytonutrient" and "phytochemical" are being used interchangeably to describe those plant compounds which are thought to have health-protecting qualities.